Q1. What social ideas did the folllowing people support?

Rammohun roy

Dayanand saraswati

Veerasalingam pantulu

Jyotirao phule

Pandita ramabai


Mumtaz ali

Ans. These people supported the following ideas-

  1. Sprread of education among women
  2. Widow remarriage
  3. Caste equality and justice
  4. Abolition of child marriage
  5. Social equality for untouchables

Q2. State whether true of false.

  1. When the british captured bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property etc.-true
  2. Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.- false
  3. Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.- false
  4. The child marriage restraint act was passed in 1829.- true

Q3. How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?


  • The reformers tried to convince people that widow burning, caste distinctions, child marriage etc. Had no sanction in ancient texts.
  • The knowledge of ancient texts gave them immense confidence and moral support which they utilised in promoting new laws.
  • They did not get feared when people raised voice against the reforms.

Q4. What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?


  • They feared that schools would take girls away from home and prevent them from doing their domestic works.
  • As girls had to travel through public places this would have a corrupting influence on them.
  • Several people were of the opinion that girls should be stay away from public places.

Q5. Why were christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?


  • People suspected that christian missionaries were involved in forced conversion of poor and tribal people from hinduism to christianity.
  • Some people supported this idea because poor and tribal people would get a golden opportunity of going to school.
  • These opportunities would change the future of these people.

Q6. In the british period what new opportunities opened up for the people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?


  • With the expansion of cities new demands of labour created.
  • This required coolies, diggers,carriers, bricklayers, sweepers, rickshaw pullers etc.
  • This labour came from people belong to low caste.
  • These people left their villages and small towns and shifted to the cities to get work.
  • Poor people saw this an opportunity to get away from the exploitations of the upper caste.

Q7. How did jyoti rao, the reformer justify their criticism of caste inequality in society?


  • Phule argued that the aryans were outsiders, they came from outside the subcontinent.
  • These aryans defeated and subjugated the true children of the country.
  • Aryans established their dominance over the area and looking at the defeated people as low caste people.
  • Phule argued that the upper caste had no right to their land and power.
  • The land infact belonged to the natives (low caste people).

Q8. Why did phule dedicate his book gulamgiri to the american movement to free slaves?


  • Jyotirao phule wrote a book in 1873 named gulamgiri meaning slavery.
  • Ten years before, the american civil war had been fought to end the slavery system in america.
  • Phule dedicated his book to all those americans who had fought to free slaves.
  • He established a link between the conditions of the lower castes in india and the black slaves in america.
  • By doing this he motivated low castes people to fight for equality.

Q9. What did ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?

Ans. Ambedkar led three temple entry movements between 1927-1935. His sole purpose behind these movements was to make people see the power of caste prejudices within society.

Q10. Why were jyotirao phule and ramaswami naicker critical of the national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?


  • They were critical of the national movement because the nationalists often made seating arrangements following caste distinctions at feasts.
  • The lower castes were made to sit at a distance from the upper castes.
  • Ramaswamy naicker inspired the untouchables to fight for their diginity by starting the self respect movement.