Q1. Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.

Ans. The term ‘rule of law’ means that all laws apply equally to all citizens and no one is above the law, not even the President of India. The law cannot discriminate between person on the basis of their religion, caste or gender.

Example- Driving a two wheeler in a helmet is a law. But we find people often violating this law.

Q2. State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the Rule of law in India.

Ans. Historians refute the claim on several grounds, two of which are given below:

  • The colonial rule was arbitrary. The British passed the sedition Act in 1870.
  • The Indian nationalists played a prominent role in development of the legal sphere in British India.

Q3. Re-Read the story board on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.


  • When complaints by the victims of domestic violence increased, the need for a new law began to be felt.
  • Different forums raised the issue of domestic violence.
  • After a nationwide consultations the drafting of domestic violence (prevention and protection) Bill completed and introduced in parliament in 2002.
  • Several women’s organizations made submissions to the Parliamentary standing committee.
  • Finally a new bill introduced in parliament and passed by both houses and sent to the President for his consent. The Act came into effect in 2006.

Q4. Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentences on page 44-45: they also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.

Ans. The Indian nationalists were fed up with the arbitrary use of authority by the British. They wanted to uproot it in order to bring equality. They made efforts to establish the rule of law by eliminating the colonial laws which were in no way justified.