What is Tripartite Struggle ? Indian history [short notes for UPSC]

Pratihara Dynasty-

  • Chanderbardai Mentioned In Prithvirajraso That-
  1. Pratihara
  2. Parmar
  3. Chalukya
  4. Chouhana

Were Emerged From Agnikund During The Sacrifice Performed By Sage Vashista On Abu Mountain.

  • Pratihara Dynasty Ruled Between Mid 8th To 11th Century.
  • Nagabhatta-I (730 Ad-760 Ad) Was The Founder Of The Gurjar Pratihar Dynasty.


  • Got The Throne In 783 Ad
  • Defeated Pala Ruler Dharmapala
  • Nagabhatta-Ii Was His Son


  • Shifted Its Capital From Kannuj To Chakrayudh
  • Defeated Pala Ruler Dharmapala Near Munger
  • Defeated Rastrakuta Ruler Govinda-Iii


  • Famous Ruler Of Pratihar Dynasty
  • Defeated By Pala Ruler Dharmapala
  • Defeated By Rastrakuta Ruler Dhruv
  • Assumed The Title Of ‘Adivaraha’
  • Arabian Traveller Suleman has Visited India During His Reign
  • Mahendrapala Extended The Pratihar Empire Up To Magadha And Northern Bengal.

Rajshekara –

  • The Great Scholar Of Sanskrit
  • Teacher Of Mahendrapala

Rajshekara Composed-

  1. Kavyamimansa
  2. Karpurmanjari

Mahipala (914 Ad-943 Ad)-

  • The Successor Of Mahendrapala
  • Al-Masudi Of Bagdad Visited India During His Reign In 915-16 Ad
  • Rastrakuta Ruler Indra-Iii Attacked And Destroyed Kannuj In 916 Ad During His Reign

Yasahpala (1024 Ad-1036 Ad)-

  • The Last Ruler Of This Dynasty
  • He Was The Son Of Trilochanpala.

Rastrakuta Dynasty-


  • Founded The Rastrakuta Dynasty In 752 Ad
  • Made Its Capital Manyakhet (Malkhand)
  • Donated Hirangarbha At Ujjain
  • Dantidurga Assumed The Title Of-
  • Maharajadhiraja
  • Parmeshwar
  • Parambhattaraka


  • The Successor Of Dantidurga
  • He Constructed the Guha Temple Of Ellora
  • Dhruva Also Known As ‘Dharavarsha’.
  • Govind-Iii Was The Successor Of Dhruva.


  • The Successor Of Govind-Iii
  • Composed ‘Kaviraja Marg’
  • ‘Mahaviracharya’ And ‘Amoghvritti’ Was Resides In His Court
  • ‘Adipurana’ Was Composed By Mahaviracharya.
  • ‘Ganitsar Sangraha’ Was Composed By Amoghvritti.
  • Al-Masudi Visited India During The Reign Of Indra-Iii.
  • Krishna-Iii Defeated Cholas And Established Control Over Kanchi And Thanjavur.
  • ‘Vijya Stambha’ Was Constructed By Krishna-I In Thanjavur.
  • Parmar Ruler Siyak Invaded Manyakhet And Destroyed It.

Pala Dynasty-

Gopal (750 Ad-770 Ad)-

  • The Founder Of Pala Dynasty
  • The Follwer Of Buddhism
  • Dharampala Was His Son And Successor
  • Constructed The Temple At Odantpuri


  • The Follower Of Buddhism
  • Founded Vikramshila University
  • Donated 200 Villages To Nalanda University

Devpala (810 Ad-850 Ad)-

  • Son And Successor Of Dharmapala
  • Conquered Odisha, Assam, And Some Parts Of Nepal
  • Established Its Capital At Munger


  • Restored The Strength Of Pala Dynasty
  • Second Founder Of Pala Dynasty
  • Sen Dynasty Emerged After The Decline Of Pala Dynasty.
  • Gauda Was The Ancient Name Of Bengal.
  • ‘Ramcharita’ Was Composed By Sandhyakar Nandi In The Praise Of Rampala.
  • Kaivarth Revolt Occurred During The Reign Of Rampala.
  • Arabian Traveller Sulaman Mentioned Pala Ruling As ‘Ruhma’ Or ‘Dharmbrast’.