Q1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Ans. People were dissatisfied due to-
- The British passed the Arms Act in 1878 which disallowed Indians from possessing arms.
- In the same year they passed the Vernacular press Act. This Act snatched the freedom of speech and expression of Indians.
- In 1883 the Ilbert Bill was passed. This Bill provided for the trial of British or Europeans by Indians, which provide equality between British and Indian judges but the white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill.
Q2. Who did the Indian National congress wish to speak for?
Ans. The Indian National Congress wished to speak for the entire people belonging to the different communities of India.
Q3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
- The First World War led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure of the Government.
- The Government in turn increased taxes.
- The First World War increased military expenditure and demands for war supplies.
- Increasing demands led to the sharp rise in prices which badly affected the common people.
- Due to increasing demands of industrial goods The business groups earned huge profits from the war.
Q4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
- The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for independent States for Muslims in the north western and eastern areas of the country.
- The resolution did not mention partition of country.
Q5. Who were Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
- The Moderates were against taking extreme actions.
- They had deep faith in the good intention of the government.
- They developed public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule by published newspapers, wrote articles.
- They criticised British rule in their speeches.
- They believed that the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice.
Q6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
- They had deep faith in in action and wanted to drive away the British as soon as possible.
- They criticised the Moderated for their ‘politics of prayer’ and gave emphasis on self reliance and constructive work.
- They argued that people must fight for swaraj.
- Some important radical leaders are Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai.
- Tilak raised the slogan “freedom is my birth right and i shall have it”
Q7. Discuss the various forms of the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
- In Kheda Gujrat Patidar peasants were organised non violent campaigns against high land revenue.
- In coastal Andhra and Tamilnadu liquor shops were picketed.
- In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh Tribals and poor peasants organised several forest satyagraha.
- In Punjab the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to drive out corrupt mahants from Gurudwaras.
- In Assam tea garden labourers left the British owned plantations and became the followers of Gandhiji.
Q8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
- The state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt.
- It was sinful to tax salt because it is an essential part of our food.
- Salt was equally used by the rich and the poor. Hence Gandhiji decided to break this law.
Q9. Discuss the developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
- From the late 1930s the Muslim League began viewing the Muslims as a separate nation from the Hindus.
- The provincial elections of 1937 also might have convinced the League that the Muslims were a minority in the country.
- In the provincial elections in 1946 the League got grand success in the seats reserved for Muslims.
- In March 1946 the cabinet mission came to Delhi to examine the demand of Pakistan.
- The failure of the cabinet mission made partition inevitable, later in 1947 partition took place with the birth of a new country i.e. Pakistan.