RINDERPEST, OR THE CATTLE PLAGUE–
- Rinderpestarrived in Africa in the late 1880s.
- It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.
- Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like a forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892.
- It reached the Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five years later.
- Along the way, rinderpest killed 90% of the cattle.
- The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.
- Planters, mine owners, and colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained
- to strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market.
Indentured Labour Migration from India–
- In the 19th century, thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations,
- THESE PEOPLE WORKED in mines, in road and railway construction projects around the world.
- In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts that promised return travel to India.
- THEY PROMISED TO RETURN after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation.
MOST INDIAN INDENTURED WORKERS CAME FROM THE PRESENT-DAY REGIONS OF-
- eastern Uttar Pradesh Bihar central India the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.
REASONS FOR WORKER’S MIGRATION– IN THE MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY THESE REGIONS EXPERIENCED MANY CHANGES–
- cottage industries declined.
- land rents increased.
- lands were cleared for mines and plantations.
- they failed to pay their rents.
- BECAME DEEPLY INDEBTED ALL THIS AFFECTED THE LIVES OF THE POOR AND WERE FORCED TO MIGRATE IN SEARCH OF WORK.
THE MAIN DESTINATIONS OF INDIAN INDENTURED MIGRANTS WERE-
- the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana, and Surinam), Mauritius, and Fiji.
- Closer home, Tamil migrants went to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Malaya.
- Indentured workers were also recruited for tea plantations in Assam.
DEVELOPED NEW FORMS OF INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE SELF-EXPRESSION, BLENDING DIFFERENT CULTURAL FORMS, OLD AND NEW.
- In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a carnival called ‘Hosay’ (for Imam Hussain) in which workers of all races and religions joined.
- Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism (made famous by the Jamaican reggae star Bob Marley) is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean.
- ‘Chutney music’, popular in Trinidad and Guyana,
- These forms of cultural fusion are part of the making of the global world, where things from different places get mixed, lose their original characteristics, and become something entirely new.
- A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford.
- He adapted the assembly line to his new car plant in Detroit.
- He realised that the ‘assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles.
- The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously – such as fitting a particular part to the car.
- Ford banned trade unions from operating in his plants.
THE GREAT DEPRESSION–
- The depression was caused by a combination of several factors.
- First: agriculture over-production remained a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices.
- As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income.
- in the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments through loans from the US.
- The withdrawal of US loans affected much of the rest of the world.
THE BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS-
- the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
- The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations.
- The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development(popularly known as the World Bank) was established to finance post-war reconstruction.
- The IMF and the World Bank are known as the Bretton woods twins.
- The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries.
- They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies.
- as Europe and Japan rapidly rebuilt their economies, they grew less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank.
- Thus from the late 1950S, the Bretton Woods institutions began to shift their attention more toward developing countries.
NIEO (NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER): MEANT A SYSTEM THAT WOULD GIVE THEM-
- real control over their natural resources,
- more development assistance,
- fairer prices for raw materials,
- better access to their manufactured goods in developed countries markets.