Q1- Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Palampur.
Ans- (a): LOCATION: Palampur is a small village near Raiganj (a big village) and shahpur (a small town).
(b) TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE:
Ans- (b): TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE: 276 hectares.
(c) LAND USE (in hectares)
Ans- (c): LAND USE (in hectares):
Cultivated Land (irrigated)- 200 hectares.
Cultivated Land (unirrigated)- 50 hectares
Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground) – 26 hectares.
Ans- (d): FACILITIES:
Educational- 2 primary schools and 1 high school.
Medical- 1 primary health centre and 1 private dispensary.
Market- Raiganj and Shahpur.
Electricity Supply- Most of the houses have electric connections. Electricity powers all the tube wells in the fields and is used in various types of small businesses.
Communication- Well-connected with neighbouring villages and towns. 3 kms from Raiganj. All- weather road connects it to Raiganj and further on to Shahpur.
Transport- Many kinds of transport like bullock carts,tongas, bogeys, motorcycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks are present. Nearest Town Shahpur.
Q2- Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?
- Modern farming methods involve the use of high-yielding variety seeds.
- Chemical fertilizers, pesticides. Agricultural implements like tractors, and electric tube wells to produce the best results.
- All these elements are manufactured in industries. Hence, it would be right to say that modern farming methods make use of a greater number of industrial outputs as compared to traditional farming methods.
Q3- How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?
Ans- The spread of electricity has helped the farmers in the following ways-
- Most of the houses have electric connections.
- Electricity is used to run tubewells in the fields.
- Electricity is used in various types of small business.
Q4- Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
- India is an agricultural country. Nearly two-thirds of the people are dependent on farming for their livelihood.
- But of the total cultivated area in the country, a little less than 40 per cent is irrigated even today.
- In the remaining areas, farming is largely dependent on rainfall which is irregular and uncertain.
- Modern farming methods cannot be used in the absence of assured adequate water supplies.
- India cannot achieve the goal of self sufficiency in food grains unless the area under irrigation is increased.
Q5- Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.
|Families with no land||150 families (all dalits)|
|Families with land less than 2 hectares||240 families|
|Families with land more than 2 hectares||60 families|
Q6- Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?
- Farm workers at Palampur village get lower wages than the minimum wages fixed by the government.
- The minimum wages for a farm labourer is fixed at Rs 115 per day. But farm labourers get only Rs. 70 – 80.
- This happens because of heavy competition for work among the farm labourers at Palampur village.
Q8- What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.
The different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land are:
- Multiple Cropping:- It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. Under it, more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during the year. Indian farmers should grow at least two main crops in a year.
- Modern Farming Methods: Production on the same piece of land can also be increased by adopting modern farming methods.
- Under modern farming, more cultivable areas should be brought under cultivation by the use of HYV seeds, improved irrigation, and increasing use of farm machinery like tractors, threshers, harvesters, etc. make cultivation faster.
Q9- Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.
- A farmer with 1 hectare of land shall put under the category of small farmer.
- Most of the work would be done by the farmer and his family members.
- The farmer will normally use a pair of bullocks to plough the field.
- His family members would assist him in sowing the seeds.
- During harvest time, he may require to hire some labourers.
Q10- How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
- Medium and large farmers usually have surplus cash by selling their farm produce. Since they have land and house, they easily get loan from banks.
- Small farmers, on the other hand, may not be able to get bank loans. They have to depend on the local merchant and moneylender for loan.
Q11- On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tajpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?
- Savita required money for buying seeds, fertilisers and pesticides.
- She also needed money for repairing her farm instruments.
- So, she decided to borrow money from Tejpal Singh, a large farmer in her village.
- Tejpal Singh agreed to give the loan of Rs. 3000 at an interest rate of 24 per cent for four months. He also got her to agree to work on his field during the harvest season for Rs. 35 a day.
- Savita’s condition would have been better if she could get a loan from the bank. The bank would have provided her the loan at a low rate of interest. Moreover, Savita could have devoted more time on her own field instead of working for Tejpal Singh as farm labourer.
Q12- What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?
Ans- Three things that need to be done to encourage non-farm production activities-
- The government should set up schemes by which landless labourers and small farmers are able to get cheap loans to start their small businesses.
- The government should set up rural workshops to enable the villagers to build on their skill levels.
- The government should also work towards improving the infrastructure of villages so that the rural parts of the country are well connected to the urban areas.