Q1. Who was considered a “foreigner” in the past?

ANS- In the past, a foreigner was someone who was not part of our society or culture.

Q 2. State whether true or false

a. We do not find inscriptions for the period after 700.  –    False

b. The Marathas asserted their political importance during this period.    –   True

c. Forest-dwellers were sometimes pushed out of their lands with the spread of agricultural settlements. – True

d. Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban controlled Assam, Manipur and Kashmir.    –   False

Q3. Fill in the blanks-

(a) Archives are places where Manuscripts are kept.

(b) Ziyauddin Barani was a fourteenth-century chronicler.

(c) Potatoes,Corn,Chillies,Tea, and Coffee were some of the new crops introduced into the   subcontinent during this period.

Q4. List some of the technological changes associated with this period.

ANS- Some of the technological changes associated with this period were –

  • the Persian wheel for irrigation.
  •  the spinning wheel in weaving.
  •  firearms in combat.

Q 5. What were some of the major religious developments during this period?

ANS- Some of the major religious developments during this period were:

  • the inclusion of new deities in Hinduism.
  •  the construction of temples by royalty.
  • The growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant groups in society.
  • The emergence of bhakti.
  • Merchants and migrants introduced Islam to the subcontinent.

Q 6. In what ways has the meaning of the term “Hindustan” changed over the centuries?


  • Over the centuries, there has been a distinct change in the meaning of the term “Hindustan”.
  • In the thirteenth century, the term stood for the lands under the Delhi Sultanate. It meant the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna.
  • The 14th  century poet, Amir Khusrau referred to “Hind” for the culture and people of the Indus river.
  • In the early sixteenth century, Babur used the term to describe the geography, culture and fauna of the subcontinent.
  • Now, it represents the modern nation state of India.

Q7. How were the affairs of jatis regulated?


  • The affairs of the jatis were regulated by an assembly of elders.
  • In some areas  these assembly known as jati panchayat.
  • jatis were also required to follow the rules of their village.
  • Several villages were governed by a chieftain.

Q 8. What does the term pan-regional empire mean?


  • The term pan-regional empire refers to an empire which stretches over many diverse regions.
  • The Mughal empire and the Chola empire are good examples of pan-regional empires.

Q9. What are the difficulties historians face in using manuscripts?

ANS- While using manuscripts, historians face a number of difficulties.

  • Manuscripts were written with hand and as a result, there were small but significant

               differences between any two copies.

  • It was difficult to read handwritten manuscripts.
  • The scribes who copied them also introduced changes.
  • This difference in different versions of manuscripts may lead to inaccurate historical information.

Q10. How do historians divide the past into periods? Do they face any problems in doing so?


  • Historians divide the past into periods based on the economic and social factors.
  • they are faced with two problems. First, economic and social changes keep taking place hence, definite boundaries cannot be drawn.

Second, these periods are compared with modernity. Modernity gives a sense of progress. This implies that there was no progress before, which is not true.