Q 1. In this chapter you have read that health is a wider concept than illness. Look at this quote from the  Constitution and explain the terms ‘living standard’ and ‘public health’ in your own words. An important part of the Constitution says it is the “duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.”

ANS- Living Standard refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and Clean, pollution free surroundings lead to good living standards whereas living in regions of dirty, poor sanitation, dusty lands leads to poor living standards.

         Public Health is the wellness of all people, irrespective of caste, religion, gender, or economic status to remain healthy and free from any disease. Due to ‘Right to life’  healthcare facilities provided by the government.

Q 2. What are the different ways through which the government can take steps to provide healthcare for all? Discuss.

ANS-  The different ways through which the government can take steps to provide healthcare for all are:

1. The government could increase the number of hospitals in rural and remote places for healthcare.

2. Sanitation facilities and proper drainage system could be improved.

3. The government provided clean and safe drinking water.

4. Proper disposal of garbage.

5. Through different campaigns and educational programmers, people should be made aware of     different health problems

6. Medicines should be available either at free costs or at very low costs.

7. Even proper toilets and washrooms should be made and maintained at every corner.

Q 3. What differences do you find between private and public health services in your area? Use the following table to compare and contrast these.


FacilityCost of ServicesAvailability of service
PrivateExpensive (high cost)  The service is easily available as the private health centers use modern and advanced techniques. They are also not very crowded.  
PublicCheap (low cost)  It is difficult to avail proper services as there is a lack of equipment. The public health centers are very crowded and service is very slow and inefficient.

The table above concludes that private health centers provide efficient quality services. and hence the health centers are costly. On the other hand, public health centers, lacking in infrastructure, but these facilities are cheaper in cost and are easily used by poor people.

Q 4. ‘Improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases.’ Explain with the help of  examples.

ANS-  There are several diseases that spread through contaminated water, for example, cholera, malaria, jaundice, typhoid, diarrhea, dysentery, etc. By ensuring that clean safe water is available to all, such diseases can be prevented.

Examples –

  • Regular checks of water coolers, roof tops and wherever the water is stagnant  in every house. These    checks could prevent mosquito breeding and could save many lives.
  • The government should check the quality of water provided at regular intervals.
  • People should be educated and aware.