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SIKH STATE AND THE BRITISH

10 GURUS OF SIKH-

GURU NANAK (1469-1539 AD)- I

  • SIKH RELIGION WAS ESTABLISHED BY BABA GURU NANAK.
  • GURU NANAK WAS BORN ON 1469 AD.
  • GURU NANAK WAS CONTEMPORARY TO BABUR AND HUMAYUN.
  • GURU NANAK STARTED FREE MESS SERVICE(LANGER).
  • GURU NANAK ESTABLISHED SANGAT (DHARMSALA) AND PANGAT (LANGER).
  • THESE SANGAT AND PANGAT PLAY A ROLE OF A ORGANISATION WHERE PEOPLE MET REGULARLY.
  • GURU NANAK WAS DIED IN 1539 AD IN KARTARPUR.

GURU ANGAD (1539-52 AD)- II

  • GURU ANGAD WAS THE SECOND GURU OF SIKH. HIS EARLIER NAME WAS LEHNA.
  • GURUMUKHI SCRIPT(PANJABI) WAS DEVELOPED BY GURU ANGAD.
  • HE MADE THE LANGER SYSTEM PERMANENT.

GURU AMAR DAS (1552-74 AD)- III

  • GURU AMARDAS WAS THE THIRD GURU OF SIKH.
  • HE MADE MANY EFFORTS TO SEPARATE FROM HINDUS.
  • HE PROMOTE LAVAN MARRIGE SYSTEM. IT WAS DIFFERENT FROM HINDUS.
  • AKBAR VISITED GOVINDVAL AND MET GURU AMARDAS.
  • AKBAR DONATED SEVERAL VILLAGES TO GURU’S DAUGHTER BIBI BHANI.

GURU RAM DAS (1574-81 AD)- IV

  • GURU RAMDAS (HUSBAND OF BIBI) WAS THE FOURTH GURU OF SIKH.
  • HE CONSTRUCTED A RESERVOIR NAMED AMRITSAR.
  • HE FOUNDED THE CITY OF AMRITSAR.
  • AKBAR DONATED 500 BIGHAS LAND TO HIM.
  • HE MADE GURUPAD PATERNAL.

GURU ARJUN DEV (1581-1605 AD)- V

  • GURU ARJUN DEV WAS THE 5th GURU OF SIKH.
  • HE WAS THE 3rd SON OF GURU RAMDAS.
  • GURU RAMDAS ENTRUSTED HIM WITH GURUPAD.
  • HE COMPILED ADIGRANTH A RELIGIOUS TEXT OF THE SIKH.
  • HE CONSTRUCTED HARMANDER SAHIB (GOLDEN TEMPLE) IN THE CENTER OF AMRITSAR RESERVOIR.
  • GURU ARJUN DEV WAS ASSASSINATED IN 1606 AD BY JAHANGIR IN THE CHARGE TO HELP MUGHAL PRINCE KHUSROO.

GURU HARGOBIND SINGH (1606-1644 AD)- VI

  • GURU GOBIND SINGH WAS THE 6th GURU OF SIKH.
  • HE TRANSFORMED SIKH INTO A MILITARY ORGANISATION.
  • HE CONSTRUCTED THE AKAL-TAKHT (THRONE OF POWER OR AUTHORITY).
  • HE SAT ON THE THRONE WITH TWO SWORDS TIED WITH HIM.
  • HE HAD MADE ARRANGEMENTS TO RING DRUMS IN THE ROYAL COURT.
  • HE FORTIFIED THE CITY OF AMRITSAR.
  • HE CALLED HIMSELF SACHCHA BADSHAH.
  • HE TOLD THAT NOW ‘GURUVANI‘ SERVES AS GURU.
  • HE PERMITTED SIKHS TO EAT NON-VEG FOOD.

GURU HAR RAI (1644-61 AD)- VII

  • GURU HAR RAI WAS THE 7th GURU OF SIKHS.

GURU HAR KISHAN (1661-64 AD)- VIII

  • GURU HAR KISHAN WAS THE 8th GURU OF SIKHS.
  • HE DIED DUE TO CHICKENPOX DISEASE.

GURU TEG BAHADUR (1664-75 AD)-IX

  • GURU TEG BAHADUR (1664-75 AD) WAS THE 9th GURU OF SIKHS.
  • EMPEROR AURANGZEB ASSASSINATED GURU TEG BAHADUR ON 11th NOVEMBER 1675 AD FOR NOT ACCEPTING ISLAM.
  • GURUDWARA SHISHGANJ SAHIB WAS CONSTRUCTED BY BAGHEL SINGH IN 1783 AD IN HIS MEMORY.

GURU GOBIND SINGH (1675-1708 AD)- X

  • GURU GOBIND SINGH (1675-1708 AD) WAS THE 10th AND LAST GURU OF GURU TRADITION.
  • HE WAS BORN IN 1666 AD IN PATNA (BIHAR).
  • HE DECLARED HIMSELF AS SACHCHA BADSHAH.
  • HE MADE FIVE KAKAR’S COMPULSORY FOR EVERY SIKH.
  • THE FIVE KAKARS WERE- KESH (UNCUT HAIR) KANGHA (A WOODEN COMB) KIRPAN (SWORD) KACHCHA (COTTON UNDERWEAR) KADA (A STEEL BRACELET).
  • HE TOLD SIKHS TO ADD ‘SINGH‘ AFTER THEIR NAME.
  • HIS RESIDENCE WAS ANANDPUR SAHIB.
  • HIS TWO SONS FATEH SINGH AND JORAWAR SINGH WERE BRICKED ALIVE IN 1704 AD BY WAZIR KHAN A MUGHAL FAUZDAR OF SIRHIND.
  • HE ESTABLISHED KHALSA PANTH IN 1699 AD ON THE DAY OF VAISHAKHI.
  • HE STARTED PAHUL SYSTEM IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS AMRIT SANSKAR. IT IS A INITIATION CEREMONY INTO THE KHALSA ‘BROTHERHOOD’.
  • GURU GOVIND SINGH WAS ASSASSINATED BY WAZIR KHAN’S ASSASSINS NAMED JAMSHED KHAN AND WASIL BEG, THEY STABBED GURU IN HIS SLEEP IN NANDED (MAHARASHTRA) IN 1708 AD.

BANDA BAHADUR (1708-16 AD)-

  • BANDA BAHADUR- WAS BORN IN RAJAULI VILLAGE OF POONCH DISTRICT IN 1670 AD.
  • HIS CHILDHOOD NAME WAS LAXMANDAS.
  • HIS FATHER WAS RAMDEV BHARADWAJ AND HE WAS A RAJPUT.
  • HIS AMBITION WAS TO ESTABLISH A SIKH STATE IN PUNJAB.
  • HE MADE LOHGARH AS HIS CAPITAL.
  • HE MINTS COINS IN THE NAME OF GURU NANAK AND GURU GOVIND SINGH.
  • HE KILLED WAZIR KHAN GOVERNOR OF SIRHIND. WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ASSASSINATION OF GURU GOVIND SINGH TWO SONS.
  • BAND BAHADUR KILLED THOUSANDS OF MUGHAL SOLDIERS IN SHAHDARA (KATLGADI).
  • BANDA WAS ASSASSINATED BY FARRUKHSIYAR IN 1716 AD IN GURDASPUR.

AKAL-TAKHT-

  • AKAL-TAKHT MEANS SEAT OF POWER OR AUTHORITY.
  • IT IS LOCATED IN THE HARMANDIR SAHIB COMPLEX IN AMRITSAR.
  • IT IS ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS AKAL BUNGA.
  • IT WAS FOUNDED BY GURU HAR GOVIND.
  • IT IS THE HIGHEST SEAT OF AUTHORITY OF KHALSA.
  • ITS HEAD IS KNOWN AS JATHEDAR.
  • HARI SINGH NALWA MILITARY GENERAL OF MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH DECORATED THE AKAL TAKHT WITH GOLD.

JATHEDARS-

BHAI GURDAS (1618-36 AD)-

  • HE WAS THE 1st JATHEDAR OF AKAL-TAKHT.
  • HE WAS THE SON OF ISHAR DAS JI (COUSIN OF GURU AMAR DAS).
  • GURU RAM DAS GAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF A ‘SIKH MISSIONARY’ TO BHAI GURDAS AT AGRA.
  • BHAI GURDAS COMPLETED THE ADI-GRANTH IN 1604 AD IN THE DIRECTION OF GURU ARJUN DEV.

BHAI MANI SINGH (1721-37 AD)-

  • HE WAS THE 2nd JATHEDAR OF AKAL-TAKHT.
  • HE WAS A FRIEND OF GURU GOVIND SINGH SINCE CHILDHOOD.
  • ON THE ORDER OF GURU GOBIND SINGH HE TAKES CHARGE OF HARMANDER SAHIB.

BABA DARBARA SINGH (1722-34 AD)-

  • HE WAS THE 3rd JATHEDAR OF AKAL-TAKHT.
  • HE WAS IN THE SERVICE OF GURU GOVIND SINGH FOR 16 YEARS.

NAWAB KAPUR SINGH (1737-53 AD)-

  • HE WAS THE 4th JATHEDAR OF AKAL-TAKHT.
  • SIKHS WERE DIVIDED INTO MANY GROUPS AFTER BANDA’S DEATH.
  • ON THE INITIATION OF NAWAB KAPUR SINGH ALL SIKH GROUPS WERE MERGED INTO DAL KHALSA IN 1748 AD.
  • IN 1733 AD THE MUGHAL GOVERNOR OF LAHORE ZAKARIYA KHAN WANTED ACCESS TO HARMANDIR SAHIB (AMRITSAR).
  • ZAKARIYA KHAN OFFERED SIKHS A JAGIR AND THE TITLE OF NAWAB TO THEIR LEADER.
  • AFTER A DISCUSSION AT SHARBAT KHALSA, KAPUR SINGH WAS ELECTED AS THE LEADER OF SIKHS AND GAVE THEM THE TITLE OF NAWAB.
  • HE COMBINED ALL SIKH MILITIAS (CIVILIAN SOLDIERS) GROUPS AND DIVIDED THEM INTO ONLY TWO GROUPS- THE TARUNA DAL (MEMBERS BELOW THE AGE OF 40 YEARS) AND THE BUDDHA DAL (MEMBERS ABOVE THE AGE OF 40 YEARS).
  • THE TARUNA DAL WAS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO 5 JATHAS, AND EACH JATHA CONTAINS 1300-200 PERSONS.
  • THE TARUNA DAL WAS WORKS AS A COMBAT FORCE.
  • THE WORK OF THE BUDDHA DAL WAS TO TRAIN THE TARUNA DAL AND PROTECT GURUDWARAS.
  • THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN KAPUR SINGH AND ZAKARIYA KHAN BROKE DOWN IN 1735 AD.

JASSA SINGH AHLUWALIA (1753-83 AD)-

  • HE WAS THE 5th JATHEDAR OF AKAL-TAKHT.
  • HE WAS THE MISLDAR OF AHLUWALIA MISL.
  • LATER DAL KHALSA WAS DIVIDED INTO 12 GROUPS AND EACH GROUP WAS KNOWN AS MISL.
  • MISL IS A ARABIC WORD THAT MEANS EQUAL.
  • LATER THE LEADERSHIP OF DAL KHALSA WAS FALL IN THE HANDS OF JASSA SINGH AHLUWALIA.

12 SIKH MISLS-

  • THE MISLS WERE THE 12 SOVEREIGN STATES OF SIKH CONFEDERACY EXISTS DURING THE 18th CENTURY.
  • THESE MISLS HAD UNEQUAL POWER, WEALTH, AND RESOURCES.
  • THESE MISLS ALWAYS TRIED TO EXPAND THEIR TERRITORIES TO INCREASE THEIR POWER.
  • SHARBAT KHALSA WAS A BIANNUAL ASSEMBLY HELD AT AMRITSAR FOR THE MATTERS OF LEGISLATURES, MISLS, DAL KHALSA, AND THE SIKH EMPIRE.
  • 12 MISLS ARE- 1)SUKERCHAKIA 2)BHANGI 3)AHLUWALIA 4)PHULKIAN 5)KANHAIYA 6)RAMGARHIA 7)SINGHPURIA 8)PANJGARHIA 9)DALLEWALIA 10)NISHANVALI 11)NAKAI 12)SHAHEEDAN

MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH-

  • RANJIT SINGH- WAS BORN IN 1780 AD AT GUJRANWALA.
  • HE WAS ALSO KNOWN AS SHER-E-PUNJAB.
  • HE WAS THE FIRST MAHARAJA OF THE SIKH EMPIRE.
  • HIS FATHER WAS MAHA SINGH AND HE WAS HEAD OF SUKERCHAKIA MISL.
  • HIS GRANDFATHER CHARAT SINGH EFFORTS GAVE SUKERCHAKIA MISL A PROMINENT PLACE IN 12 MISLS.
  • RAJA RANJIT SINGH SUCCESSFULLY MERGED ALL SIKH MISLS AND TOOK OVER OTHER KINGDOMS TO CREATE SIKH EMPIRE.
  • RANJIT SINGH BECAME THE RULER OF LAHORE IN 1798-99 AD.
  • HIS EMPIRE WAS DIVIDED INTO 4 PROVINCES- PESHAWAR, KASHMIR, MULTAN, AND LAHORE.
  • HE DIED IN 7th JUNE 1839 AD.

MAHARAJA DALIP SINGH-

  • MAHARAJA DALIP SINGH YOUNGEST SON OF RANJIT SINGH BECAME THE RULER OF PUNJAB IN 1843 AD AT THE AGE OF FIVE.
  • MAHARAJA DALIP SINGH WAS THE LAST RULER OF THE SIKH EMPIRE.
  • RANI JIND KAUR (RANI JINDA) MOTHER OF DALIP SINGH BECAME THE GUARDIAN OF DALIP SINGH FROM 1843- 46 AD.

FIRST ANGLO SIKH WAR (1845-46 AD)-

  • ANARCHY WAS EXISTS IN SIKH EMPIRE AFTER THE DEATH OF MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH.
  • KHALSA ARMY WAS THE MOST POWERFUL AT THAT TIME.
  • FIRST ANGLO SIKH WAS FOUGHT IN 1845-46 AD.
  • SIKH WAS DEFEATED IN THIS WAR.
  • DUE TO THE FEAR OF THE KHALSA ARMY SOME SELFISH SIKH COURTIERS PLAYOFF KHALSA WITH THE BRITISH ARMY.
  • SIKH WAS DEFEATED AND THE GUARDIANSHIP OF DALIP SINGH WAS TAKEN FROM RANI JIND KAUR.
  • ALL RULING RIGHTS WERE GIVEN TO SIKH COUNCIL.
  • IN 1847 AD 48000/- ANNUAL PENSION WAS GIVEN TO MAHARANI JIND KAUR AND RAJA DALIP SINGH AND SENT TO SHEKHPURA.

SECOND ANGLO SIKH WAR (1849 AD)-

  • SECOND ANGLO SIKH WAS FOUGHT IN 1849 AD-
  • SIKH WAS DEFEATED IN THIS WAR.
  • IN 1849 AD 50000/- POUND ANNUAL PENSION WAS GIVEN TO MAHARAJA DALIP SINGH AND SENT TO ENGLAND FOR EDUCATION.
  • THE FAMOUS KOHINOOR DIAMOND WAS TAKEN FROM MAHARAJA DALIP SINGH AND SENT TO QUEEN VICTORIA IN ENGLAND.
  • FINALLY ON 29th MARCH 1849 LORD DALHOUSIE ANNEXED PUNJAB IN BRITISH EMPIRE.