Q1. What do you understand by ‘people as resource’?
Ans. The people of a country are an important resource, if they become educated and healthy.they make the best use of natural resources. Natural resources cannot become useful on their own.
Q2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Ans. It is human resource that makes use of other resources such as land and physical capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on their own. Instead they are made useful by human resources. Thus human resource is superior to other resources.
Q3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Ans. Education is an important input for the growth of an individual.it plays a major role in human capital formation, that adds to the productive power of the country. It helps a person to realise his potential and the ability to do a work. Educated people gain through higher incomes. Society also gains in other indirect ways because the advantages of a more educated population spreads to those also who themselves are not directly educated.
Q4. What are the role of health in human capital formation?
Ans. Health is another important input for human capital formation. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation indeed. Health not only improves the quality of life of an individual but also adds to the human resource development on which various sectors of national economy depend.
Q5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
Ans. Health involves the physical, mental, economis and social well being of an individual. Health covers a wide range of activities including family welfare, population control, drug control, immunisation and prevention of food adulteration etc. A sick person without access to medical facilities withholds his own productivity and the productivity of the nation.
Q6. What are the varoius activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertairy sector?
Ans. Primary sector- agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, poultry farming, fishing, mining and quarrying.
Secondary sector- manufacturing.
Tertiary sector- trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism etc.
Q7. What is the difference between economic activities and non economic activities?
Ans. Economic activities- those activities which add value to the national income are termed as economic activities. These activities are performed to earn money.
Non economic activities- non economic activities are those which are not performed for monetary gains instead they are ferformed to satisfy emotional needs.
Q8.why are women employed in low paid work?
Ans. A majority of women have meagre education and low skills. They also lack scientific and technological competence as compared to men. Most women work where job security is not there. Legal protection is also meagre. These are the reasons of low income of women.
Q9. How will you explain the term unemployment?
Ans. Unemployment is a situation where people are willing to work at the going wages but fail to find jobs. It leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy turns into a liablity due to unemployment.
Q10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Ans. Disguised unemployment- in this type of unemployment people appear to be employed but actually they aren’t. This unemployment generally found in agriculture where members of a family are engaged in agricultural activity. The work require five people but engages eight people the three people are extra. If the five members to do work in full potential the productivity is same . So the three people contribute nothing. These three people are disguised unemployed.
seasonal unemployment- seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing is done. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.
Q11. Why is educated unemployed a peculiar problem of india?
Ans. Many youth with matriculation, graduation and post graduaation degrees are not able to find job. A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed as surplus of manpower in certain categories co-exists shortage of manpower in others.
Q12. In which field do you think india can build the maximum employment opportunity?
Ans. India can build the maximum employment opportunity in the tertiary sector. In this sector various new services are now appearing like biotechnology, information technology and so on. In recent years maximum employment opportunities have arisen in the bpos or call centers.
Q13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?
Ans. I) education should be planned and executed properly so that future prospects might not be damaged.
Ii) vocational education should be promoted.
Iii) practical knowledge is also provided with theoretical knowledge.
Iv) education should be given in such a way that it encourages people to become self-reliant and enterprising.
V) more and more employment opportunities should be generated.
Q14. Can you imagine some villages which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Ans. I can give an example of my own village (rajgarh). Initially the village was very backward with no facilities at all. The roads were unmatteled. The houses were mud built, there was no electricity, no school etc. By the time as the agricultural activities improved, this improvement changed the condition of village now maximum facilities are available to the people, as a result job opportunities came up and many youth of the village got employed.
Q15. Which capital would you consider the best land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?
Ans. Investment in human capital through education, training etc. Can give a high rates of return in future. Human is superior to other resources like land and physical capital only, human resourse can make best use of land and capital. Land and capital can not become useful on their own.