CHAPTER-1 (Geography)



  • India lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.
  •  India’s mainland extends between 8°4’N and 37°8’N latitudes, and 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes.
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) divides India into two almost equal parts.


  • Covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometres.
  • India’s total area is 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world.
  •  India is the world’s seventh largest country.
  • India’s land boundary of about 15,200 km.
  • Total coastline being 7,516.6 km.
  • India’s east-west extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent.

India and the World:

  • The Indian landmass is centrally located between West and East Asia.
  • India’s protruding Deccan Peninsula helped India to establish close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe, South-east and East Asia.
  • India’s contacts with the world via land routes are much more than her maritime contacts.
  • India has contributed a lot to the world in forms of ideas, philosophies (Upanishads, Ramayana, Panchtantra) and mathematics (Indian numerals and decimal system). In exchange.
  • India’s architecture was influenced by Greek sculpture and architectural styles from West Asia.

India’s Neighbours:

  • India has an important position in South Asia and has 28 States and 9 Union Territories.
  • India shares its boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Bhutan.
  • The southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely Maldives and Sri Lanka. India stands apart from the rest of Asia.


Q.1. Indian Standard Time or I.S.T. is how many hours ahead or behind of G.M.T. or  Universal Time?

(a) 5 hrs 30 min behind G.M.T.

(b) 15 hrs ahead of G.M.T.

(c) 5 hrs 30 min ahead of G.M.T.

(d) None of the above

Q.2. Which of the following has reduced India’s distance from Europe by 7000 km?

(a) Suez Canal

(b) Panama Canal

(c) Indira Gandhi Canal

(d) Buckingham Canal

Q.3. Which of the following influences the duration of the day and night, as one moves from south to north?

(a) Longitudinal extent

(b) Latitudinal extent

(c) Standard Meridian

(d) All the above

Q.4. The Standard Meridian of India, 82°30′E passes through which of the following places?

(a) Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu

(b) Walong in Arunachal Pradesh

(c) Kachchh in Gujarat

(d) Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh

Q.5. The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat. What  time will the watch show in Gujarat if it is 6 am in Arunachal Pradesh?

(a) 4.16 am

(b) 7.44 am

(c) 6 am

(d) 5.44 am

Q.6. If the local time at Dwarka (69°01′E) in Gujarat to the west of India is 6 am, what will be  the local time at Dibrugarh (94°58′E approximately 95°), in Assam, in the east?

(a) 4.16 am

(b) 6 am

(c) 7.44 am

(d) 7.44 pm

Q.7. From Arunachal Pradesh to Gujarat there is a time lag of:

(a) 24 hours

(b) 12 hours

(c) 2 hours

(d) 30 minutes

Q.8. Both the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India’s mainland is about 30°. But on looking at the map of India which of the following alternatives do you observe about India’s size?

(a) East-west extent appears to be smaller than north-south extent

(b) East-west extent appears to be larger than north-south extent

(c) East-west and north-south extent appears equal

(d) North-south extent appears to be smaller than east-west extent.

Q.9. Approximately what is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland of India?

(a) 97°

(b) 68°

(c) 30°

(d) 8°

Q.10. Which geographical feature bounds India’s mainland south of 22°N latitude?

(a) Young Fold Mountains

(b) Sandy Desert

(c) Lava Plateaus

(d) Seas and Ocean

Q.11.By which geographical feature is India bounded in the north-west, north and north- east?

(a) Seas

(b) Lave Plateaus

(c) Young Fold Mountains

(d) Sandy Desert

Q.12. What is India’s size with respect to other countries of the world?

(a) First

(b) Third

(c) Fourth

(d) Seventh

Q.13. Which of the following figures shows the total area of India’s landmass?

(a) 2.4 million square km

(b) 3.28 million square km

(c) 32.8 million square km

(d) 3.28 million km

Q.14. Which of the following groups of islands belonging to the Indian territory lies in the Arabian Sea?

(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

(b) Sri Lanka

(c) Lakshdweep

(d) Maldives

Q.15. Which of the following groups of islands belonging to the Indian territory lies in the Bay of Bengal?

(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

(b) Sri Lanka

(c) Lakshadweep

(d) Maldives

Q.16. Which latitude passes through the southern-most point of India’s mainland?

(a) 8°4′N

(b) 37°6′N

(c) 8°4′S

(d) 82°30′E

Q.17. Which of the following is the western-most longitude of India?

(a) 97°25′E

(b) 68°7′E

(c) 68°7′E

(d) 82°32′E

Q.18. The eastern-most longitude of India is _________

(a) 97°25′E

(b) 68°7′E

(c) 77°6′E

(d) 82°32′E

Q.19. Which of the following parallels of latitude divides India into two almost equal parts?

(a) Equator

(b) Tropic of Capricorn

(c) Tropic of Cancer

(d) Prime Meridian

Q.20. Which of the following is the longitudinal extent of India?

(a) 8°4′N and 37°6′N

(b) 68°7′N and 97°25′E

(c) 68°7′E and 97°25′W

(d) 8°4′E and 37°6′E

Q.21. Which of the following places of India is located on the three seas?

(a) Port Blair

(b) Kavaratti

(c) Kanniyakumari

(d) Kochi

Q.22. India achieved multi-faceted socio-economic progress during which of the following periods?

(a) Since ancient times

(b) During medieval period

(c) In the 21st century

(d) During the last five decades

Q.23. Which of the following Union Territories is located along the west coast of India?

(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

(b) Chandigarh

(c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli

(d) Puducherry

Q.24. How many states and Union Territories are there in India?

(a) 28 states and 7 Union Territories

(b) 23 States and 12 Union Territories

(c) 28 states and 9 Union Territories

(d) 30 States and 5 Union Territories

Q.25. Which of the following ports of India is closest to the Suez Canal route?

(a) Kolkata

(b) Chennai

(c) Kochi

(d) Mumbai

Q.26. Which of the following is the oldest route of contact between India and other countries of the world?

(a) Ocean routes

(b) Maritime contact

(c) Land routes

(d) Air routes

Q.27. Due to which of the following reasons is the Indian Ocean named after India?

(a) India has a strategic location along the trans-Indian Ocean routes

(b) No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India

(c) India is centrally located at the head of the Indian Ocean

(d) All the above

Q.28. Which of the following longitudes is selected as the Standard Meridian for India?

(a) 68°7′E

(b) 82°30′E

(c) 97°25′E

(d) 23°30′N

Q.29. In which of the following places, would you find the least difference in the duration between day time and night time?

(a) Kanya kumari

(b) Leh

(b) Srinagar

(d) Itanagar

Q.30. Tropic of Cancer passes through which of these states

(a) Orissa

(b) Tripura

(c) Bihar

(d) Punjab

Q.31. Which one of the following is the southern-most Latitude of India?

(a) 8° 4′ North

(b) 8° 4′ South

(c) 6° 4′ South

(d) 6° 4′ North

Q.32. The latitudinal extent of India lies between

(a) 7° 5′ N and 26° 5′ N

(b) 8° 4′ N and 37° 6′ N

(c) 12° 5′ N and 27° 5′ N

(d) 12° 5′ N and 37° 6′ N

Q.33. The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through

(a) Rajasthan

(b) Tripura

(c) Jharkhand

(d) Bihar

Q.34. Which meridian is fixed as a Standard Meridian of India?

(a) 82½° E

(b) 84½° E

(c) 86° E

(d) 81° E

Q.35. The easternmost longitude of India is :

(a) 97° 25′ E

(b) 77° 6′ E

(c) 68° 7′ E

(d) 82° 32′ E

Q.36. What is the position of India in the world in respect of area?

(a) 8th position

(b) 7th position

(c) 6th position

(d) 2nd position

Q.37. Which one of the following forms the southern-most tip of the Indian mainland?

(a) Indira Point

(b) Kanniyakumari

(c) Palk Strait

(d) Kavaratti

Q.38. Which line divides India into approximately two equal parts?

(a) Equator

(b) Tropic of Cancer

(c) Tropic of Capricorn

(d) None of these

Q.39. Which country among the India’s neighbours is the smallest?

(a) Nepal

(b) Bhutan

(c) Sri Lanka

(d) Bangladesh


Q.1 (c) Q.2 (a) Q.3 (b) Q.4 (d) Q.5 (c) Q.6 (c) Q.7 (c) Q.8 (a) Q.9 (c) Q.10 (d) Q.11(c) Q.12(d)

Q.13 (b) Q.14 (c) Q.15 (a) Q.16 (a) Q.17 (b) Q.18 (a) Q.19 (c) Q.20 (b) Q.21 (c) Q.22 (d) Q.23 (c) Q.24(a) Q.25 (d) Q.26 (c) Q.27 (d) Q.28 (b) Q.29 (a) Q.30 (b) Q.31 (a) Q.32 (b) Q.33 (d) Q.34 (a) Q.35 (a) Q.36(b) Q.37 (b) Q.38 (b) Q.39 (b)


Q1-Why 82°30E has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India?


  • A globe has 24 time zones, each of 15 longitudes.
  • Local time in each zone at the middle longitude (divided by 7°30′) is taken as Standard Time.
  • As 82°30’E is divisible by 7°30′, a standard by all countries, India selected this odd value.

Q.2. Why is the difference between the durations of day and night hardly felt at  Kanyakumari but not so in Kashmir?


  • Places near the Equator experience almost equal duration of day and night as the Sun shines overhead throughout the year.
  • Going away from Equator towards the Poles, the durations of day and night go on differing.

Q.3. Find out the number of Union Territories along the western and eastern coasts.

Ans. Union Territories on the western coast of India are four in number — Diu and Daman,  Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Mahe (Pondicherry) and Lakshadweep. Union Territories on the eastern coast of India are two Pondicherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Q.4. Area wise which is the smallest and which is the largest state?


  • Smallest State in India (area wise)-Goa
  • Largest State in India (area wise) – Rajasthan

Q.5. Find out the States which do not have an international border or lie on the coast.

Ans. Hariyana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand.

Q.6. Classify the states into four groups each having common frontiers with (i) Pakistan (ii) China (iii) Myanmar and (iv) Bangladesh.


  • States having common frontiers with Pakistan are Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  • States having common frontiers with China are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • States having common frontiers with Myanmar are Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.
  • States having common frontiers with Bangladesh are West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam and Tripura.

Q.7- The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the  west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?

Ans. The local time difference arises because the sunrise is earlier in the east than in the west. However, the watches show the same time because Indian Standard Time is reckoned from a single meridian 82o30’that passes through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh.

Q.8. The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great  significance. Why?

Ans. The location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean has helped India in establishing close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with South-east and East Asia from the eastern coast.

Q.9. What is the longitudinal extent of India? State its two implications.

Ans. The mainland of India extends between longitudes 68°7′E and 97°25′E. The east-west extentis 2933 km in length. The longitudinal extension shows that India is located in the Eastern Hemisphere and places can be located with reference to longitudes. On account of the 30° longitudinal extension (97°25′–68°7′ = 29°18′, approximately 30°) there is a time difference of 2 hours (30°×4 min = 120 mins or 2 hours) in local time between the eastern and western limits of India. However, a standard time (5 hours 30 min ahead of G.M.T.) is adopted according to the local time of the central meridian of the country, 82°30′E.

Q.10. Describe briefly the geographic location of India in Asia. What is the significance of  India’s geographic location?

Ans. The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is  a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with oil rich countries of West Asia as well as Africa and Europe from the western coast and the Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast via sea and ocean routes and air routes.


Q.1. Which are the countries with which India shares land boundaries? Write a short note about India’s position among its neighbours.

Ans. India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. India stands apart from the rest of Asia with the Himalayas acting as a natural barrier to the north and northwest and the Purvanchals in the northeast. Thus, the land boundary of India is protected by mountain ranges, giving India a safer location with respect to its neighbours. India occupies the most eminent position within the Indian subcontinent and has strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours. India shares strong bilateral relationships with its neighbours socially, culturally and economically. Social and cultural exchange with our neighbours has strengthened our position on account of our rich cultural heritage. Economically, we have good trade relations with our neighbours. Politically also, we share good relations with most of our neighbours. The SAARC endeavours to maintain good relations among the neighbouring countries in South Asia.

Q.2. Write a note on the location and size of India

Ans. India is a vast country. It is located in South Asia. From south to north India’s mainland extends between 8°4′N and 37°6′N latitudes. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30′N) passes roughly through the middle of the country. From west to east India extends between 68°7′E and 97°25′E longitudes. It is located in the Eastern Hemisphere. To the southeast of India’s mainland lie the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and to the southwest lie the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. The landmass of India covers an area of 3.28 million square km. From the point of view of size it is the seventh largest country of the world. It accounts for 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. It has an east-west extent of 2933 km from Arunachal Pradesh to Kachchh in Gujarat and a north-south extent of 3214 km from Kashmir to Kanniyakumari. India’s land boundary extends for about 15,200 km. It has a long coastline of 7516.6 km including Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. With a population of over 1000 millions, India is the second most populous country of the world after China. The lofty ranges of the Himalayas and other mountains form a natural geographical boundary in the northwest, north and northeast. The southern part of the country is in form of a peninsula, tapering towards the Indian Ocean in the south. It is bounded by Arabian Sea in the southwest and Bay of Bengal in the southeast.

Q.3. How many states form the Union of India? Write a note on the smallest and the largest Indian states.

Ans. For administrative convenience, our vast country has been divided into political units – the states and the Union Territories. The administrative divisions have been made mainly on the basis of language. At present India is a union of 28 states and 7 Union Territories including the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Delhi is the national capital of India. From the point of view of size, Rajasthan is the largest states while Goa is the smallest

state. Rajasthan, the largest state, has an area of about 342 thousand sq. km. It lies to the west of India. It shares its boundary with our neighbouring country of Pakistan in the west. In its east lie the states of Uttar Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh. To its north lie Punjab and Haryana. Gujarat and parts of Madhya Pradesh lie to its south. The Thar Desert or the Indian Desert is located in Rajasthan. Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan. Goa, the

smallest states of India, has an area of only 3,702 sq. km. (appr. 3.7 thousand sq. km.). The Arabian Sea lies to the west of Goa. To its north lies Maharashtra and to its east and south lies Karnataka. Panaji is the capital of Goa.

Q.4. What are the two groups of Indian islands? Write a note on each, describing its geographic position with relation to India.

Ans. The two group of islands which are part of the Indian Union are the Andaman &  Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal. The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea to the southwest of India’s mainland, close to the Malabar coast of Kerala. The Andaman and Nicobars are formed of the Great Andamans and the Little Andamans in the north and Nicobar Islands in the south. They are groups of numerous big and small islands. The southernmost point of the Indian Union is located in one of these Islands. These islands are of great strategic importance to India. They lie close to the equator and have equatorial climate. They lie along the trans-Indian Ocean route and close to the south and southeast Asia. Port Blair is the official headquarters of Andaman and Nicobar. The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of small coral islands lying close to the southern section of the west coast of India. In 1973 the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive Islands were renamed as Lashadweep. It covers a small area of 32 sq. km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. Both the group of islands are rich in flora and fauna and natural beauty, enhancing India’s geographical entity.