HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES-
- For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
- Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
- for comparison between countries THAT HAVE DIFFERENT POPULATIONS, total income is not a useful measure.
- comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.
- Hence, we compare the average income.
- AVERAGE INCOME -which is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
- The average income is also called per capita income.
WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006-
- THIS REPORT WAS brought out by the World Bank.
- this criterion is used in classifying countries.
- Countries with a per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004, are called rich countries.
- those with a per capita income of Rs 37,000 or less are called low-income countries.
- India comes in the category of low-income countries because its per capita come in 2004 was just Rs 28,000 per annum.
- The rich countries, excluding countries of the Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries.
INCOME AND OTHER CRITERIA-
- people not only think of better income but also have goals such as security, respect for others, equal treatment, freedom, etc.
- Similarly, when we think of a nation or a region, we may, besides average income, think of other equally important attributes.
- Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR)- indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
- Literacy Rate-measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.
- Net Attendance Ratio-is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.
- money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well.
- government should provide adequate facilities FOR EXAMPLE- your money cannot buy you a-
- pollution-free environment
- or ensure that you get unadulterated medicines,
- Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases unless the whole of your community takes preventive steps.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT-
- the level of income is important, yet it is an inadequate measure of the level of development,
- the most important indicators, such as health and education have come to be widely used along with income as a measure of development.
- For instance, Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status, and per capita income.
SUSTAINABILITY OF DEVELOPMENT-
- level of development to go up further or at least be maintained for future generations. This is KNOWN AS the SUSTAINABILITY OF DEVELOPMENT.