Q1. Fill in the blanks.

A). Vellalar was a word used for large landowners in tamil.

B). The grambhojka often got his land cultivated by the slaves and workers.

C). Ploughmen were known as uzhavar in tamil.

D). Most grihapatis were small landowners.

Q2. Describe the functions of the grambhojka. Why do you think he was powerful?


The grambhojka was the largest landowner.

He had slaves and he hired workers to cultivate the land.

He was powerful since the king entrusted him with the important job of collecting taxes from the villagers, he also worked as a police and judge.

Q3. List the crafts persons who would have been present in both villages and cities.

Ans. Craftsman like the carpenters, weavers, potters etc. Were presumably present in both villages and cities.

Q4. Choose the correct answer.

A). Ring wells were used for-

1. Bathing

2. Washing clothes

3. Irrigation

4. Drainage

B). Punch marked coins were made of-

1. Silver

2. Gold

3. Tin

4. Ivory

C). Mathura was an important-

1. Village

2. Port

3. Religious centre

4. Forested area

D). Shrenis were associations of-

1. Rulers

2. Craft presons

3. Farmers

4. Herders

Q5. Which of the iron tool shown on page 87 of the ncert text book would have been important for agriculture? What would the other tools have been used for?

Ans.the iron tools are shown on the page 87 are- sickle, tongs and axe. The tools which used in agriculture were sickle and axe. Tongs would have been used to hold things without touching them.

Q6. Compare the drainage system in your locality with that of the cities mentioned in the lesson. What similarities and differences do you notice?

Ans. The drainage system in our localities is well planned. The same system was adopted in the times mentioned in the lesson. Both the systems are found to be similar in many ways. The only difference that we find is the past systems was made of mud, brick and thatch whereas mordern systems were made of solid concrete.