Q1. Match the following.

The buddha  –  questioned social differences

Shankaradeva  –  namghar

Nizamuddin auliya  –  sufi saint

Nayanars  –  worship of shiva

Alvars  –  worship of vishnu

Q2. Fill in the blanks.

A) shankara was an advocate of advaita.

B) ramanuja was influenced by the alvars.

C) basavanna, allama prabhu and akkamahadevi were advocates of virashaivism.

D) pandharpur was an important centre of the bhakti tradition in maharashtra.

Q3. Describe the beliefs and practices of the nathpanthis, siddhas andd yogis.


  • They advocated renunciation of the world.
  • They believed that the path to salvation lay in meditation on the formless god and the realisation of oneness with it.
  • To achieve this they practice yogasanas, breathing exercises and meditation.

Q4. What were the major ideas expressed by kabir? How did he express these?


  • Rejection of major religious traditions.
  • Criticism of all forms of external worship.
  • Criticism of priestly calss and caste system.
  • Believe in a formless supreme god.
  • Emphasis on bhakti to achieve salvation.

Kabir expressed his ideas in a vast collection of verses known as sakhis and pads.

Q5. What were the major beliefs and practices of the sufis?


  • They rejected the outward religiosity and gave emphasis on love and devotion to god.
  • They rejected idol worship.
  • They developed elaborate methods of training using zikr, sama and raqs. Under the guidance of a master called pir.

Q6. Why do you think many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices?

Many teachers rejected these practices because these were based on social differences, excess ritualism and outward display piety.

Q7. What were the major teachings of baba guru nanak?


  • Baba guru nanak emphasised  the importance of the worship of one god.
  • He used the term nam, dan and isnan for the essence of his teaching.
  • He gave importance to right belief  and worship, honest living and helping others.
  • Guru nanak promoted the idea of equality.
  • He insisted that caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation.