Q1.choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below-

To which one of the following type of vegetation does rubber belong to- tropical evergreen.

Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than- 100 cm

In which of the following state is the simlipal bio-reserve located- orissa

Which one of the following reserves of india is not included in the world network of boi reserve- manas

Q2. Answer the following questions.

What factors are responsible for the distribution of palnts and animals in india?

Ans- it depends on two factors-

Relief factors– land and soil

Climatic factors– temperature, photoperiod and precipitation

Define an eco system.

Ans. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent  and interrelated to each other in their physical environment, thus forming an ecosystem.

What is a bio reserve? Give two examples.

Ans. A bio reserve is a conserved ecosystem. It is managed in such a way that not only is its biodiversity  preserved but also its resources are used in a sustainable manner. Examples- nilgiris and sunderbans.

Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.

Ans. Common animals found in tropical forests are elephants, monkeys, lions, tigers, one horned rhinoceros, lemur and deer.

Common animals found in montane forests are kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, yak, snow leopard etc.

Q3. Distinguish between-

Flora and fauna

Flora– natural vegetation growing in  a particular area is reffered to as flora. It makes its food with the help of solar energy.

Fauna– wild life living in a particular area of the globe  is termed as fauna.

Tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous forests.

Tropical evergreen forests–  they grow in the areas of 200cm and above rainfall.  Common animals found in these forests are elephants monkeys one horned rhinoceros etc.

These are found on the slopes of the western ghats and island groups of india. Some important trees found in these forests are ebony mahogany and rosewood rubber and cinchona.

 tropical deciduous  forests– th ey grow in the areas receiving rainfall between 200 and 70cm. They shed their leaves for about  6 -8 weeks in a dry summer. Common animals found in these forests areb lions and tigers. These forests found in the eastern part of india, northeastern states, along the foot hills of himalayas . Some important trees found in these forests are teak, bamboo,  sandalwood, peepal neem sal shisham and khair etc.

Q4. Name different types of vegetation found in india and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.

Ans. The different types of vegetation found in india are-

Tropical evergreen forests-

Tropical deciduous forests

Tropical thorn forests and scrubs

Montane forests

Mangrove forests

Vegetation of high altitudes-

In the mountainous areas,the decrease in temperature with increase in altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation. As such there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region.

Between the height of 1000 and 2000 metres wet temperate types of forests are found containing evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts.

Between 1500 and 3000 metres temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found.

These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the himalayas, places having high altitude in southern and north-east india.

At higher elevations,temeprate grasslands are common.

At high altitudes,generally more than 3600 metres above sea-level alpine vegetation is found. Silver fir,junipers,pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.

Q5) quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in india. Why?

Ans) the greed of humans beings leads to over utilisation of plant and animal resources. They cut the trees and kill the animals have reached the verge of extinction.

Q6) why has india a rich heritage of flora and fauna? Ans) our  country india is one of the twelve mega bio-diversity countries of the world. The different regions of the country have different soil types ,different types of climate with great variations inhumidity and temperature    also unevenly distributed.therefore, the flora and fauna found in india is diverse and rich.