Q1. How is ‘trabeate’ principle of architecture different from the arcuate?


  • In trabeate principle of architecture roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a  horizontal beam across two vertical columns.
  • In arcuate principle of architecture the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was carried by arches.

Q2. What is shikhara?

Ans. A shikhara is the topmost pointed portion of a temple.

Q3. What is pietra dura?

Ans.  Pietra dura refers to the coloured, hard stones placed on depressions carved into marble  or sandstone which create beautiful ornate patterns.

Q4. What are the elements of a mughal chahar bagh garden?

Ans. Mughal chahar bagh consists of four garden which are placed within rectangular walled enclosures and  divided into four quarters by artificial channels.

Q5. How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?

Ans. Kings usually constructed temples to demonstrate their devotion to god and their power and wealth. The temple was the miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies.

Q6. An inscription in shah jahan’s diwan-i-khas in delhi stated “if there is a paradise on earth, it is here, it is here, it is here”. How was this image created?

Ans. Shah jahan’s diwan-i-khas was designed carefully it was placed within a large courtyard. Behind the emperor’s throne there was a series of pietra dura inlays. The diwan-i-khas was aimed to communicate the king’s justice. In this way it reflects the image of a paradise itself.

Q7. How did the mughal court suggest that everyone- the rich and the poor, the powerful  and the weak received justice equally from the emperor ?

Ans. The diwan-i-am of the mughal court suggested that justice was made for all in equal way. The construction of shahjahan’s audience hall was designed to communicate that the king’s justice was equal for the high and the low.

Q8. What role did the yamuna play in the layout of the new mughal city at shahjahanabad?

Ans. Shah jahan preferred the river front garden in the layout of the taj mahal. In the new city of shahjahanabad only the most favoured nobles were given access to the river.