TRIBALS DIKUS AND THE VISION OF GOLDEN AGE
Q1. Fill in the blanks.
a) The British described the tribal people as savage.
b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as broadcast.
c) The tribal chiefs got land titles in central India under the British land settlements.
d) Tribal’s went to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines in Bihar.
Q2. State whether true of false.
a) Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds- False
b) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price – True
c) Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery- True
d) The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life- False
Q3. What problems did shifting cultivators face under the British rule?
- The British declared forests were state property and extended control over them.
- Tribal people not allowed to move freely and practice jhum cultivation.
- These changes badly affected the life of tribal people.
- Some forests were classified as reserved so many jhum cultivators had to move to other areas in search of work.
Q4. How did the powers of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?
- They lost much of their administrative powers and were forced to follow laws made by the British officials in India.
- They had to pay tribute to the British and discipline the tribal groups on behalf of the British.
- They lost the authority they had enjoyed earlier and were unable to fulfill their traditional functions.
Q5. What accounts for the anger of the tribal’s against the Dikus?
- The land policies of the British were destroying their traditional land system.
- Hindu landlords and moneylenders were taking over their land.
- Missionaries were criticizing their traditional culture.
Q6. What was Birsa’s vision of golden age? Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?
- The movement that he led aimed at reforming tribal society.
- He urged the Munda tribals to give up drinking liquor, clean their village and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
- He often remembered the golden past of the Munda’s when they lived a good life constructed embankments, tapped natural springs, planted trees and orchards and practiced Jhum cultivation.
- Birsa wanted to restore this glorious past.
The tribal people fed up with the colonial laws imposed on them