Q1- Match the following:


Ryot                   –                   Peasant

Mahal               –                    Village

Nij                     –                     Cultivation on planters own land

Ryoti                –                      Cultivation on ryot’s land

Q2- Fill in the blanks:

(a) Growers of woad  in Europe saw indigo as a crop which would provide competition to their  earnings.

 (b) Thedemandforindigoincreasedinlate-eighteenth-centurybritainbecause of industrialisation .

 (c) The international demandfor indigowas affectedby the discovery of synthetic dyes.

 (d) The Champaran movement was against indigo planters .

Q3- Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.


  • The rajas and taluqdars were recognized as zamindars.
  • They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the company.
  • The amount to be paid was fixed permanently.
  •  It was felt that this would ensure a regular flow of revenue into the company.
  • If the zamindars failed to pay the revenue, they lost their zamindari right on the land.

Q4- How was the mahalwari system different from the Permanent Settlement?


  • Mahalwari Settlement devised by Holt Mackenzie, came into effect in 1822, in the North Western provinces of the Bengal Presidency. It was devised as an alternative to the Permanent Settlement.  The revenue amount was not fixed, and was to be revised periodically.
  • The Permanent Settlement was introduced in 1793 by Lord Cornwallis. It was aimed at ensuring stable revenue for the East India Company. The village headmen were in charge of collecting revenue. The revenue amount was fixed and was never to be increased in the future.

Q5- Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.

ANS- Two problems were-

  • Revenue officials fixed too high a revenue demand.
  • Peasants were unable to pay the revenue as the crop failed in the countryside and villages became deserted in many regions.

Q6- Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?

ANS- The ryots reluctant to grow indigo because:

  • The planters paid a very low price for indigo.
  • The ryots were not in a position to even recover their cost, earning a profit was a far- fetched idea. This meant that the ryot was always under debt.
  • The planters insisted that the peasants cultivate indigo on the most fertile parts of their land.
  • The peasants preferred growing rice on the best soils.
  • After an indigo harvest. The land could unfertile.

Q7- What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?


  • The ryots began to refuse to grow indigo. They were supported by the village headmen and some zamindars in their fight.
  • The scale of protest was so much that the government had to intervene.
  • The Indigo Commission was set up to enquire into the problems. The Commission found the planters guilty and allowed the ryots to grow whatever they wished.
  •  This led to eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal.