Q1. Why do we need elections?

Ans. In most democracies people rule through their representatives election provides a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so.hence election are essential for any representative democracy.

Q2. Write a short note on election campaign?

Ans. In india election campaigns take place for a two week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling. During this period the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters. The publicity is also done through news papers television and posters etc.

Q3. What makes an election democratic?

Ans. (i) every one should have one vote and every vote should equal value.

(ii) the choice should be offered at regular intervals.

(iii) elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.

(iv) parties and candidates should be free to contest elections.


Q4 what system of election followed in india?

Ans. There are two types of election followed in india. When elections are held regularly after five years this is called a general election.but sometimes elections is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by election. Lok sabha and vidhan sabha elections are held regularly after every five years.

Q5. State some of the  demerits of an electoral competition in india.

Ans. (i) it creats a sense of disunity and factionism in every locality.

(ii)different political parties and leaders often put  allegations against one another.

(iii) parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win the elections.

(iv) some good people who wish to serve the country do not enter this field.

(v) pressure to win electoral fights does not allow sensible long term policies. To be formulated.

Q6. What are the limitations and challenges of indian elections?

Ans. (i) candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties.

(ii) in some parts of the country candidate with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race.

(iii) some families tend to dominate political parties, tickets are distributed to relatives from these families.

(iv) very often elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens. For both the major parties are quite similar to each other in their policies.

(v) smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.

Q7. What do you mean by ‘code of conduct’?

Ans. A code of conduct is a set of norms and guidelines to be followed by the political parties and contesting candidates during the time of election. According to this no party or candidate can-

  • Use of any place of worship for election campaign.
  • Use of government vehicles in election campaign by ruling party.
  • Once elections are announced, ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, announce any big policy decisions or make any promise of providing public facilities.

Q8. What are the stages of election procedure in india.

Ans. 1. Nomination of candidate

2. Election campaign

 3. Polling and counting of votes

  4. Result declaration.

Q9.write briefly about the election commission of india.

Ans. It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The chief election commissioner is appointed by the president of india but once appointed the cec is not answerable to the president or the government.

The powers of election commission are-

  • Ec takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections.
  • It impliments the code of conduct and punishes the candiadtes that violates it.
  • It can also order the government to follow some guidelines to prevent use and missuse of governmental power.
  • When on election duty, the government officers work under the control of the ec and not the government.