Q1. Answer the following questions.

i) Name the three common minerals used by you every day.

Ans. Copper, iron and common salt.

ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?

Ans. An ore is a rock from which minerals are mined. Ores of metallic minerals are found usually in   igneous and metamorphic rock formations.

iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resource.

Ans. Jaisalmer and Krishna-Godavari delta.

iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for-

a) rural areas     b) coastal areas         c) arid areas


  • Rural areas- solar and wind energy.
  • Coastal areas- wind and tidal energy.
  • Arid areas- wind and solar energy.

v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.


  • Promoting use of solar energy.
  • Using Biogas as cooking fuel.
  • Drying clothes in sunlight instead use of electric dryers.
  • Avoiding misuse of electricity.
  • Using pressure cooker for cooking.

Q2. Tick the correct answer.

i) Which one of the following is not a characteristic of minerals?

a) They are created by natural processes.

b) They have a definite chemical composition.

c) They are inexhaustible.  

d) Their distribution is uneven.

ii) Which one of the following is not a producer of Mica-

a) Jharkhand


c) Rajasthan

d) Andhra Pradesh

iii) Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?

a) Bolivia

b) Ghana

c) Chile     

d) Zimbabwe

iv) which one of the following practices will not conserve LPG in your kitchen?

a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.

b) cooking food in a pressure cooker.

c) keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.

d) cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.                       

Q3. Give reasons.

i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.

Ans. Effects of building huge dams-

  • Destruction of natural habitats of animals.
  • Destruction of forests.
  • Problem of rehabilitation of people.

ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.

Ans. Presence of coal mines around industries reduces the cost of transportation.

iii) Petroleum is referred to as “Black Gold”.

Ans. Petroleum is very valuable fossil fuel. It is used for running all machineries, transport vehicles  etc.

iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.

Ans. After quarrying, pits are not covered so they may cause environmental hazards.

Q4. Distinguish between the following.

i) Conventional and Non conventional sources of energy.

Conventional sources of energyNon conventional sources of energy
1. Conventional power sources are those that have been in use for a long time.1. Non conventional sources are those that have come into use recently.
2. ex- fossil fuels and firewood.2.ex- solar and tidal energy.

ii) Biogas and natural gas

BiogasNatural gas
1. Biogas is obtained from the decomposition of organic waste.1. it is by product of Petroleum.
2. it is renewable source.2. it is non renewable source.
3. it is non conventional source.3. it is conventional source.

iii) Ferrous and non ferrous minerals.

Ferrous mineralsNon ferrous minerals
1. ferrous minerals contains iron.1. non ferrous minerals not contains iron.
2. they are magnetic.2. they are non magnetic.
3. ex- ironEx- limestone

iv) Metallic and non metallicminerals.

Metallic mineralsNon metallic minerals
1. Metallic minerals contains metals in raw form.1. Non metallic minerals do not contain metals.
2. ex- iron ore, bauxite.2. ex- Limestone, gypsum.