Q1- What was the legal frame work order passed by Pervez Musharraf in August 2002?
- In August 2002 Pervez Musharraf issued a ‘Legal Frame Work Order’ that amended the constitution of Pakistan .
- According to this order the president can dismiss the national or provincial assembly.
- The work of the civilian cabinet was supervised by a National Security Council which was dominated by military officers.
- After passing this law elections were held regularly but the elected representatives had some powers but the final power rested with president.
- By issuing this order Pervez Musharraf empowered himself.
Q3- Mentions some features of democracy.
- In a democracy the final decision making power must rest with those who elected by the people.
- A democracy must based on a free and fair election.
- In a democracy each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
- A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law.
- In a democracy elections must be held regularly.
Q4. How does the democracy improve the quality of decision making?
- Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings.
- When a number of people put their heads together, they are able to point out possible mistakes in any decision.
- This takes time but there is a big advantage in taking time over important decision. This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions.
Q5. How democracy provide a method to deal with differences and conflicts?
- In any society people have differences of opinions and interests. Here democracy provides independence of thoughts and opinions.
- Democracy provides rights to people of different languages and religions to follow their customs.
- In democracy no one is permanent winner, no one is permanent loser. So different groups can live with another peacefully.
Q6. How are mistakes corrected in a democracy?
- Democracy allows us to correct its own mistakes. No other form of government can guarantee that.
- The advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be a burden for long. There is space for public discussion on these mistakes. And there is a room for correction.
- Either the rulers have to change their decisions or the rulers can be changed.
Q7. What problems does faced by the people of a non democratic country?
- The ruler are not accountable to the people and their needs.
- People do not elect their rulers and have no right in decision making.
- The citizens of the country have no right to vote.
- Non-Democratic government is based on dictatorship. The ruler does what he wants.
- In a non-democratic country there is no freedom of expression and people do not enjoy their fundamental rights.
Questions from text book-
Q1- Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries? Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country A: People who do not accept the country’s official religion do not have a right to vote.
Ans- (a) Undemocratic
(b) Country B: The same party has been winning elections for the last twenty years.
Ans- (b) Not sure
(c) Country C: Ruling party has lost in the last three elections.
Ans- (c) Democratic
(d) Country D: There is no independent election commission.
Q2- Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries? Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country P: The parliament cannot pass a law about the army without the consent of the Chief of Army.
(b) Country Q: The parliament cannot pass a law reducing the powers of the judiciary.
(c) Country R: The country’s leaders cannot sign any treaty with another country without taking permission from its neighbouring country.
(d) Country S: All the major economic decisions about the country are taken by officials of the central bank which the ministers cannot change.
Q3- Which of these is not a good argument in favour of democracy? Why?
(a) People feel free and equal in a democracy.
(b) Democracies resolve conflict in a better way than others.
(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.
Ans- Option ‘D’ Democracies are more prosperous than others is not a good argument in favour of democracy as there are many countries such as Sri Lanka, India which opted for democracy but not prosperous where other countries such as China or Saudi Arbia which have communist and monarchy rule respectively are more prosperous. The prosperity of any country depends on the correct policies of government. It also depends on the availability of natural resources not with the form of government. Democracy can’t guarantee prosperity.
Q4- Each of these statements contains a democratic and an undemocratic element. Write out the two separately for each statement.
(a) A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament in order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
Ans-(a): A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament – Democratic element to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO). – Undemocratic element
(b) The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency where large-scale rigging was reported.
Ans-(b): The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency – Democratic
element large-scale rigging was reported – Undemocratic element
(c) Women’s representation in the parliament has barely reached 10 per cent. This led
women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women.
Ans-(c): This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women. – Democratic element Women’s representation in the parliament has barely reached 10per cent. – Undemocratic element
Q5- Which of these is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country?
(a) Opposition parties can draw attention to hunger and starvation.
(b) Free press can report suffering from famine in different parts of the country.
(c) Government fears its defeat in the next elections.
(d) People are free to believe in and practise any religion.
Ans- Option ‘d’ is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country. This is because practising a religion has nothing to do with preventing famine.
Q6- There are 40 villages in a district where the government has made no provision for drinking water. These villagers met and considered many methods of forcing the government to respond to their need.
Which of these is not a democratic method?
(a) Filing a case in the courts claiming that water is part of right to life.
(b) Boycotting the next elections to give a message to all parties.
(c) Organising public meetings against government’s policies.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.
Ans- Option ‘d’, which advocates paying the government officials money, is an undemocratic method.
Q7- Write a response to the following arguments against democracy:
(a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free organisation in the country. Therefore army should rule the country.
(b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are in small numbers.
(c) If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters, why not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.
Ans- A democracy is the government elected by the people, from among the people
themselves. The Army is integral in protecting the country, but it is not elected by the
people; hence, it cannot form a democratic government. The second statement is not true
as all people are intelligent to some extent. The third statement is dangerous because
bringing religion into politics can cause serious conflict.
Question 8 Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value? Why?
(a) Father to daughter: I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In our family
children marry where the parents tell them to.
Ans- (a): This statement of father is undemocratic as every adult has right to choose their life partner. The father does not have right to impose their choice on daughter.
(b) Teacher to student: Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me questions in the
Ans-(b): This statement also is not under democratic setup. The student have right to ask question. This is undemocratic if his right is denied.
(c) Employee to the officer: Our working hours must be reduced according to the law.
Ans-(c): The third statement is democratic as it calls for a rule of law which is beneficial
for the employees.
Q9- Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision
(a) All the citizens of the country have right to vote. Elections are held regularly.
Ans-(a): This is democracy as only democratic setup allows right to vote and also
election at regular time period.
(b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for giving loan
was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.
Ans-(b): A democratic country has to look after the welfare of its people. The condition of reducing of expenses on health and education is against the welfare of the people.
(c) People speak more than seven languages but education is available only in one language,
the language spoken by 52 percent people of that country.
Ans-(c): In democracy, education is available in all languages as it basic right. Official
language can be the language of majority of people.
(d) Several organisations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nation-wide
strikes in the country to oppose these policies. Government has arrested these leaders.
Ans-(d): In a democracy people have right to express their opinion in peaceful manner. It
is undemocratic behaviour.
(e) The government owns the radio and television in the country. All the newspapers have
to get permission from the government to publish any news about government’s policies
Ans- (e): This is undemocratic nature as in democracy freedom of press and media is must. If government own radio and television then freedom of press violated