Q1- Match the following:
Diwani – Right to collect land revenue
‘Tiger of Mysore’ – Tipu Sultan
Faujdari adalat – Criminal court
Rani Channamma – Led an anti British movement in Kittor
Sipahi – Sepoy
Q2- Fill in the blanks:
- The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of Plassey.
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of Mysore.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of Lapse.
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the South-Western part of India.
Q3- State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.
Q4- What attracted European trading companies to India?
ANS- European trading companies were attracted to India because-
- Trading with India was highly profitable to the businessmen in Europe.
- The European trading companies purchased goods at cheaper and sold them in Europe at the higher prices.
- The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
- Indian spices like – pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon were in great demand in Europe.
Q5- What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India Company?
- The Bengal Nawabs asserted their power and autonomy. This led to the conflicts between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India Company.
- The Nawabs refused to grant the Company concessions. Demanded large tributes from the Company.
- Denied the Company from the right to mint coins.
- Stopped it from extending its fortifications.
- The Company Refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and humiliating the Nawab and his officials.
Q6- How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?
ANS- The Diwani right to the East India Company benefited it in several ways:
- The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
- The East India Company monopolized trade and began direct plunder of India’s wealth.
- Revenues from India financed Company expenses.
- These revenues were used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India.
- maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
Q7. Explain the system of” subsidiary alliance”.
ANS- Term of “Subsidiary Alliance”-
- The East India Company behaved as a guardian of the State .
- The State appointed an English Resident in its court, to check the activities of the king.
- Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.
- The State could not give shelter to any other European other than English in its army.
- They where to be protected by the company but pay for the Subsidiary Forces.
- If the Indian rulers failed to make payment, then that part of territory was taken away by the company as penalty
Q8- In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?
- British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called Presidencies. whereas under the Indian rulers administration was divided into four parts – District (Zila), Paragana, Tehsil and Villages.
- Each administrative unit was ruled by a Governor, whereas the Indian Administrative unit was ruled by Zamndars and peasants.
- The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-General, whereas under the Indian Administrative system the supreme head was King or Nawab.
Q9- Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army?
- East India Company started recruiting peasants and began training them as professional soldiers.
- The army was known as Sepoy army.
- The Company’s army was composed of the cavalry and the infantryregiments, with the cavalry dominating the army.
- The soldiers had to be armed with muskets and matchlocks.
- The British developed a uniform military culture. The soldiers were subjected to European style training.